The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (2024)

People in Ramallah look into the window of a gold store, one of the West Bank businesses affected by the economic decline resulting from Israel's war in Gaza. Ayman Oghanna for NPR hide caption

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Ayman Oghanna for NPR

The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (2)

People in Ramallah look into the window of a gold store, one of the West Bank businesses affected by the economic decline resulting from Israel's war in Gaza.

Ayman Oghanna for NPR

RAMALLAH, West Bank — Muattaz Qatanani used to commute from Gaza to work each day in Israel, where he built bomb shelters — the kind that Israelis use to seek refuge from Hamas rocket attacks.

"I used to make 450 shekels a day," he says — about $130 at the time. But after Hamas attacked Israel on Oct. 7 and Israel began its assault on Gaza, Qatanani fled to the Israeli-occupied West Bank. He says he hasn't been able to find decent-paying work since.

Muattaz Qatanani, 41, used to build bomb shelters in Israel. Israel has blocked him and more than 100,000 Palestinian laborers from working in Israel, which is helping to drive down the West Bank's economy. Ayman Oghanna for NPR hide caption

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Ayman Oghanna for NPR

The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (4)

Muattaz Qatanani, 41, used to build bomb shelters in Israel. Israel has blocked him and more than 100,000 Palestinian laborers from working in Israel, which is helping to drive down the West Bank's economy.

Ayman Oghanna for NPR

"Maybe I get a job once a week to wash stairs, to wash windows — that's how I survive," says Qatanani, 41, who has a family back in Gaza. Now he makes about $40 a day — when he can find work.

More than three months into Israel's war in Gaza, the economy of the West Bank is reeling. Many fear the economic pain could lead to even more violence in the territory, which is a bit smaller than Delaware and home to some 3 million Palestinians.

After the Oct. 7 Hamas attack, which Israel says killed about 1,200 people, Israel banned some 100,000 Palestinian laborers in the West Bank from crossing the border to work in Israel. The country cited security concerns.

This has been a huge financial blow to the West Bank. Wages of cross-border workers account for $5.5 billion a year, about one-third of the combined economy of the West Bank and Gaza, according to the World Bank.

A currency exchange in Ramallah in December. Ayman Oghanna for NPR hide caption

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Ayman Oghanna for NPR

The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (6)

A currency exchange in Ramallah in December.

Ayman Oghanna for NPR

In addition, Israel and the Palestinian Authority are in a dispute over tax money that Israel collects for the West Bank and Gaza. As a result, the Palestinian Authority, which oversees parts of the West Bank, has had to cut the wages of its 143,000 workers. They received no pay in October, half-pay in November and close to 80% in December, says Manal Farhan, the Palestinian Authority's deputy minister for the national economy.

"This time, it's the worst," says Farhan, "the worst hit for our economy since the establishment of the Palestinian Authority."

The Palestinian Authority was established in 1994.

Stroll through the streets of Ramallah these days, and the war's economic impact seems to be everywhere. Baha Tamimi, who runs a gold shop in the heart of the city, says 4 out of 5 people who visit now don't want to buy gold — they want to sell it.

"A woman took off her wedding ring to help her husband pay the bills and buy vegetables — this happened right in front of me," Tamimi recalls, as video of people pulling bodies from the rubble in Gaza plays on the shop's TV.

More than 25,000 Palestinians have been killed since Israel invaded Gaza, according to the territory's health ministry.

Nearby, Joudeh Said is cutting a piece of wood in his carpentry shop. He says he has one or two jobs these days, but no one has much money to pay.

"They give me a check, and then the check bounces, and then I have to chase them," he says.

Joudeh Said runs a carpentry business in the West Bank. "No one is paying," he says. "They give me a check, and then the check bounces, and then I have to chase them." Ayman Oghanna for NPR hide caption

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Ayman Oghanna for NPR

The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (8)

Joudeh Said runs a carpentry business in the West Bank. "No one is paying," he says. "They give me a check, and then the check bounces, and then I have to chase them."

Ayman Oghanna for NPR

Since the war began, Said says, customers owe him $32,000, which is a lot of money in the West Bank. Per capita gross domestic product in the territory is just $4,500 a year, according to the World Bank. Across the border in Israel, it is nearly $55,000.

In addition to the economic impact that the war in Gaza is having, Israeli soldiers are killing more and more Palestinians in the West Bank. The United Nations says the Israeli military has killed about 350 people in the West Bank since Oct. 7. The Israelis say they are rooting out militants.

Samir Anati, who co-owns the carpentry shop, says if the economy continues to slide, violence will only grow.

"For sure," he says. "I have children to feed. What can I do? I work now and get them food. I may not be able to tomorrow."

"So it is not me who will go for an intifada," or uprising, Anati continues. "My children will."

Samir Hulileh, a leading economist and businessman, worries about the impact on public workers if they are not paid. He's especially concerned about the Palestinian Authority maintaining the loyalty of its security forces, who are supposed to maintain law and order in the areas that the Palestinian Authority oversees.

Samir Hulileh is a leading economist and former CEO of the largest holding company in the Palestinian territories. He worries that if the Palestinian Authority can't pay its security forces, someone else — like Hamas or other militants — might try to recruit them. Ayman Oghanna for NPR hide caption

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The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (10)

Samir Hulileh is a leading economist and former CEO of the largest holding company in the Palestinian territories. He worries that if the Palestinian Authority can't pay its security forces, someone else — like Hamas or other militants — might try to recruit them.

Ayman Oghanna for NPR

"You are telling people who have their Kalashnikovs with them, 'I will not spend money on you,'" warns Hulileh, who adds that other groups, including Hamas, could recruit them. "You are opening up your security forces in the West Bank for options."

Khalil Shikaki, an academic and pollster who runs the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research in Ramallah, is not as concerned about the security forces. But he does worry that the West Bank's battered economy is just one more ingredient in an already combustible brew.

Shikaki notes that since the start of the war, Hamas' popularity in the West Bank has more than tripled — from 12% to 42%, according to his polls. In addition, some Israeli settlers in the West Bank continue to attack Palestinians, and an increasing number of Palestinians feel they have no diplomatic alternative to violence.

"The West Bank is currently boiling," says Shikaki, "just waiting for the spark that could eventually lead to a major explosion."

Nuha Musleh contributed reporting in Ramallah, West Bank.

I'm an expert in the field, and my in-depth knowledge of the situation in the West Bank and Gaza, particularly in relation to the economic impacts of Israel's war with Hamas, allows me to provide valuable insights into the article you've shared.

The evidence presented in the article strongly supports the narrative of a severe economic decline in the West Bank due to the conflict. Muattaz Qatanani's personal account of building bomb shelters in Israel, his subsequent displacement to the West Bank, and the significant reduction in his income highlight the human impact of the situation. The ban on over 100,000 Palestinian laborers from working in Israel, a move citing security concerns, has dealt a substantial blow to the West Bank's economy. The World Bank's estimation that wages of cross-border workers contribute $5.5 billion annually, about one-third of the combined economy of the West Bank and Gaza, underscores the economic ramifications.

The dispute between Israel and the Palestinian Authority over tax money, leading to wage cuts for the Authority's workers, further exacerbates the economic crisis. Local businesses, like the gold shop run by Baha Tamimi, are witnessing a decline in sales, with people resorting to selling their gold to make ends meet. The hardships faced by individuals such as Joudeh Said, who is struggling with unpaid debts since the conflict began, highlight the economic struggles at the grassroots level.

The article also touches upon the rising death toll in the West Bank and the fear that continued economic decline could escalate violence. The concerns of economists and businessmen, such as Samir Hulileh, regarding potential recruitment of security forces by other groups if they are not paid, adds another layer to the complex situation.

In summary, the evidence in the article paints a vivid picture of the multifaceted economic challenges faced by the West Bank, emphasizing the potential for further unrest and violence in the region. If you have specific questions or if there's a particular aspect you'd like more information on, feel free to ask.

The West Bank economy has been hammered by war (2024)

FAQs

What country owns the West Bank? ›

The West Bank is another area of land located within the country of Israel, but it is much larger than the Gaza Strip at 2,173 sq miles. The West Bank stretches across the eastern border of Israel along the west banks of the Jordan River and most of the Dead Sea, thus how it received its name.

What happened to the West Bank and Gaza in 2000? ›

Between October 2000 and late February 2002, more than 1,000 Palestinians were killed and over 17,000 injured in clashes with Israelis. Israeli forces have reentered parts of Areas A and B, prevented movement among many Palestinian areas, and laid siege to Palestinian towns.

Who controls the West Bank today? ›

The Palestinian Authority maintains administrative control, and Israel maintains security control of Area B in the West Bank. Israel retains full security control of Area C and has designated most Area C land as either closed military zones or settlement zoning areas.

Was Palestine a country before Israel was created? ›

While the State of Israel was established on 15 May 1948 and admitted to the United Nations, a Palestinian State was not established. The remaining territories of pre-1948 Palestine, the West Bank - including East Jerusalem- and Gaza Strip, were administered from 1948 till 1967 by Jordan and Egypt, respectively.

Who owned the West Bank before Israel? ›

From 1950 until it was occupied by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967, the West Bank was governed as part of Jordan, though it was divided from the Jordanian population of the East Bank by the Jordan River.

Is Palestine a country or part of Israel? ›

It is officially recognized as a state by the United Nations and numerous countries. Palestine shares borders with Israel to the west and north, Jordan to the east and Egypt to the southwest. The state comprises the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip.

Is Gaza poorer than the West Bank? ›

Summary: Years of isolation and continuous conflicts have left Gaza's economic development far behind that of the West Bank. In 2022, per capita income in Gaza was only a quarter of that in the West Bank, and unemployment and poverty rates were much higher.

Why does the US support Israel? ›

Bilateral relations have evolved from an initial American policy of sympathy and support for the creation of a Jewish homeland in 1948, to a partnership that links a small but powerful state with a superpower attempting to balance influence against competing interests in the region, namely Russia and its allies.

Does the US recognize Palestine? ›

U.S. Blocks U.N. Resolution to Recognize Palestine.

What was Israel called before 1948? ›

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as Israel, the first instance of the name in the record. Under the British Mandate (1920–1948), the whole region was known as Palestine.

Why is Israel and Palestine fighting? ›

The conflict has its origins in the rise of Zionism in Europe and the arrival of Jewish settlers to Ottoman Palestine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The local Arab population opposed Zionism, primarily out of fear of territorial displacement and dispossession.

What religion is mostly in Israel? ›

According to the country's Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) classification system (2021 data), approximately 73.8 percent of the population is Jewish, 18 percent Muslim, 1.9 percent Christian, and 1.6 percent Druze.

What was Palestine called in the Bible? ›

The name was familiar to their ancient neighbours, occurring in Egyptian as Purusati, in Assyrian as Palastu, and in the Hebrew Bible as Peleshet (Exodus 14:14; Isaiah 14:29, 31; Joel 3:4). In the English authorized version, Peleshet is rendered Palestina or, in Joel only, Palestine.

Why did Britain give Palestine to Israel? ›

In 1917, in order to win Jewish support for Britain's First World War effort, the British Balfour Declaration promised the establishment of a Jewish national home in Ottoman-controlled Palestine.

What is the origin of the Jews? ›

Jews originally trace their ancestry to a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes known as the Israelites that inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods. Modern Jews are named after and also descended from the southern Israelite Kingdom of Judah.

Who owned the West Bank before Jordan? ›

Prior to hostilities in 1948, Palestine (modern-day West Bank, Gaza Strip and Israel) had been administered by the British Empire pursuant to the Mandate for Palestine, having captured it from the Ottomans in 1917.

Who bought West Bank? ›

BMO, also known as Bank of Montreal and previously called BMO Harris, purchased the San Francisco-based Bank of the West, from BNP Paribas, a French multi-national bank in a deal valued at $16.3 billion. The combined companies will have more than 1,000 branches and 42,000 ATMs located in 32 U.S. states.

What country does Gaza belong to? ›

Palestine

What country is Palestine now? ›

Historical Palestine is made up of the current Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank—referred to as the State of Palestine—and the country of Israel. Both of these territories were captured by Israel during the Six-Day War in 1967. In these areas combined, there are around 7 million Palestinians.

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